This summer pope Francis turned of the Vatican water fountains and Rome shut down most of the nasone fountains in the city because of a severe water shortage. But the fountains use only a fraction of the water supplied to Rome.

The average domestic use of water in Italy is about 250 liters per person. It is striking that the portion of water for the shower / bath and the portion for flushing the toilet are about the same. There is no need to use clean drinking water to flush the toilet, so why not use the shower / bath water? That would make a huge difference. It however needs some changes in the bathroom but at the moment the water is to cheap to trigger people to make this happen.

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This summer the idea was to turn of the water supply for several hours each day. For restaurants and other public toilets that would have been a huge problem and a big inconvenience in hotels and at home.

There is another way to save on water for flushing the toilet: at festivals we are used to simple mobile urinals. We can improve on this to make them more acceptable during extreme droughts and until changes are made indoors to flush toilets with shower / bath water.

Just outside the old center the need is already obvious: no rain for so long also means that at some places the stench of pee is annoying. There are many homeless people in Rome and not enough (free) public toilets and after a late night out other people also use trees or dark corners of monuments as a urinal.

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The mobile urinals can be improved by using the sun to evaporate part of the water. Collect this clean water and next use this to rinse the toilets. This new use makes it possible to install water siphons so there is no foul smell coming from the container and the urinal itself stays clean.

The roof can be tilted towards the direction of the sun and has the solar still built into it. A solar panel provides the energy needed for the pump, the microprocessor and the (touch free) motion sensors to trigger the pumps to flush the toilets.

The solar still will be bigger than what is needed just to flush the toilets: this means clean excess water will be available for plants. This way it takes a lot longer for the container to fill up: the toilets can be used much longer. Ideal for emergencies where the sewage system is broken, and peacekeeping deployments in arid environments.

The urine is concentrated and provides a good source to mix with magnesium to produces an essential fertilizer: the world supply of phosphate is running out in about a century.

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When this concept is proven the next step is to make some of the clean water available for a standard enclosed ('ladies') toilet that will be flushed with a small amount of water (like in an aircraft).

This space also has a urinal like the ones shown: it gives the option to use a P-mate or Pee buddy and to avoid gender issues.

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